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“a continuous cycle of planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating, and taking corrective action in an effort to ensure effective coordination during incident response.” 

United States Department of Homeland Security. (2012, June 19). Plan and Prepare for Disasters. Retrieved from


“Actions carried out immediately before, during, and immediately after a hazard impact, which are aimed at saving lives, reducing economic losses, and alleviating suffering. Response actions may include activating the emergency operations center, evacuating threatened populations, opening shelters and providing mass care, emergency rescue and medical care, fire fighting, and urban search and rescue.” 

City of St. Louis. (2021). 5 Steps of Emergency Management. Retrieved from


Our CEO Ralph Renger, PhD is also a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) certified Master Exercise Practitioner (MEP).  Please see below for a detailed description of our services. 

Exercise Design and Evaluation 

We can plan, conduct, and evaluate Department of Homeland Security (DHS) exercises.  We will meet with your leadership to create an exercise design team.  Together we plan the exercise objectives and select the best exercise type(s) to meet these objectives.  Our team will train and provide the exercise controllers, evaluators, and safety officer. We will conduct the post exercise hotwash and provide you with the after action report (AAR).  To date we completed over 20 local, county, and state exercises.

Response Evaluation and After Action Reports 



We have worked with numerous local and state public health and emergency management agencies to evaluate their response efforts and generate After Action Reports and Improvement Plans.


PDF Copies of each article can be accessed by clicking the hyperlinks below. 

Brodal Syversen, K., Souvannasacd, E., Booze, W., & Renger, R.  (2019) Validating the LUCAS® mechanical chest compression fit specifications. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 37 (2), 371-373. 

Coşkun, R., Akande, A., & Renger, R. (2012) Using root cause analysis for evaluating program improvement. Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 12 (2), 4-14.

Granillo, B., Renger, R., Wakelee, J. & Burgess, B. Utilization of the Native American talking circle to teach incident command system to tribal community health representatives.  Journal of Community Health, on-line March 19.

Harness, D., Sullivan, S., Keegan, J., Taylor, C., Neibauer, T., Jones, I., Pratt, K., Odenbach, H., Schueler, M., Renger, J., Renger, J., & Renger, R.  (2019) Coordinating an EMS air-ground intercept:  Lessons learned.  Journal of Emergency Medical Services.

Renger, R. (In Press) COVID-19: Exposing the need for emergency management to invest in systems thinking.  Journal of Emergency Management.

Renger, R., Davis, M., & Granillo, B. (2012) Using root cause analysis (RCA) to facilitate corrective actions, after action reports (AARs), and improvement plans.  Journal of Emergency Management, 10 (6), 442-448.

Renger, R., Foltysova, J., Renger, J., Donaldson, S.I., Hart, G., & Hawkins, A. (2020) Comparing and contrasting a program versus system approach to evaluation: the example of a cardiac care system.  Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 35 (2), 240-257.

Renger, R., & Granillo, B. (2012) Developing a comprehensive and integrated meaningful multi-year training and exercise plan (MYTEP).  Journal of Emergency Management, 10 (5), 383-392.

Renger, R., & Granillo, B. Using Systems Evaluation Theory (SET) to Improve Points of Dispensing (POD) Planning, Training, and Evaluation. (2018) Journal of Emergency Management, 16 (3), 149-157.

Renger, R., Harness, D., Souvannasacd, E., & Granillo, B. (2018) The ALS intercept:  The need for standard operating procedures (SOPs) and mutual aid agreements (MAAs) to improve patient care and attenuate the impact of billing constraints. Journal of Emergency Medical Services. 

Renger, R., Jansen, A., Peacock, E., Cimetta, A., & Surdam, J. (2008) Using evaluation theory to augment the homeland security exercise and evaluation (HSEEP) guidance for evaluating operations-based exercises.  Journal of Emergency Management, 6 (3), 45-52.

Renger, R., Renger, J., Basson, M. D., Van Eck, R., Renger, J., Souvannasacd, E., & Hart, G.  (In Press) Using the Homeland Security and Exercise Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Building Block Approach to Implement System Evaluation Theory (SET). American Journal of Evaluation.

Renger, R., Wakelee, J., & Bradshaw, J.  (2009) The hybrid exercise: Transitioning from discussion-based to operations-based exercises.  Journal of Emergency Management.  7(4), 51-56.

Renger, R., Wakelee, J., Bradshaw, J., & Hites, L. (2009) Writing an effective master scenario events list (MSEL).  Journal of Emergency Management, 7(6), 51-60.

Renger, R., Wood, S., Granillo, B., & Attakai, A.  Using experiential learning theory (ELT) to design emergency preparedness training curricula.  Journal of Emergency Management , 9 (5), 57-63.

Roorda, M., Gullickson, A., & Renger, R. (2020)  Whose values?  Decision-making in a COVID-19 emergency-management situation.  Evaluation Matters – He Take Tō Te Aromatawai. 

Xiao, Q., He, Z., Renger, R., & Souvannasacd, E. (2018) Using spatial regression methods to evaluate rural emergency medical services (EMS). The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

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